Thursday, March 12, 2020

Anthony Burgess essays

Anthony Burgess essays John Burgess Wilson, better known to the reading public as Anthony Burgess, is regularly lauded by critics and peers for his imagination, his humor, his varied knowledge and his sheer productivity. Abundantly reflected in Burgesss fiction is his Roman Catholic background, which is part of an ancient regional and family heritage. Mr. Burgess says, I was brought up a Catholic, became an agnostic, flirted with Islam and now hold a position which may be termed Manichee...I believe the wrong God is temporarily ruling the world and the true God has gone under. It is through his Manichean position that Burgess uses his novels as a social commentary, based on his desire for free will and free thought. While the novels written by Anthony Burgess contained (at times) deplorable violence, they also conveyed his points accurately and intelligently. For example, in A Clockwork Orange, a form of teenage dialect (nadstat) was used to downplay the actual violent crimes being committed while still shocking the educated reader (Malafry 1). Burgesss novels are entertaining, shocking and amusing, but, more importantly, they revel ever deepening shades of meaning as they are reread, meanings that challenge the imagination as they force readers to consider the human plight (De Vitis 89). One such plight, which is a central theme in many of Burgesss works is his resentment towards the state. Urged through several protagonists is the defense of self, no matter how twisted it may be. Condemned is the state, no matter how benevolent it pretends to be (Coale 14). An additional important factor that explains why Burgess feels the way he does about the state and society in general is his firm belief in Manichee. Shockingly, his vision of the world as one of constant reversals and repetitions within the ongoing conflict between good and evil reveals an essentially conservative Catholic eschatology...

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Article Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 17

Article Review - Essay Example Particularly, having found a weakness in the Korean Tourism Organization, KTO website in attracting tourists to its destinations (Jeong et al. 25), it would be critical for the organization to incorporate communications on benefits in the message on its website so as to be effective. But the implications of this study would be far reaching. With the results indicating that travel websites greatly influence majority of overall and cognitive destination image Jeong et al. (21), more DMOs and government tourism agencies would resort to the use of Internet in marketing their tourist destinations. Even in doing so, the content of the websites would be designed to increase effectiveness by adopting measures such as communication of benefits and more convincing information. The findings of this study suggest that DMOs would have to continuously evaluate the content of their travel websites so as to post vivid information that would strongly influence the decision of potential tourists. According to Jeong et al. (25), various African countries have developed their brand images through such processes. It would be critical for DMOs to be sensitive to the dimensions of brand personality when developing their websites as this gives them a competitive edge against their rivals. Visual and audio effects have to be encompassed appropriately to achieve the objectives of such websites. Finally, it would be of much significance to communicate the benefits that a destination would offer as this would attract even tourists who already have information on the destination. I support the findings of this research study. It is the nature of human psychology to make consumption decisions based on the perceived image. The perception of the image greatly depends on the ability of the seller to create a convincing image. In a similar manner, the ability of DMOs to create an effective destination image

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Dream employer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Dream employer - Essay Example There are a few companies in the world that offer a good working environment or autonomy and opportunities as Microsoft Corporation; apart from an attractive pay package they also offer an incredible array of perks to their staff such as free and complete medical cover and gym membership. This essay will discuss reasons as to why working for Microsoft Corporation would be a dream comes true for me. Founded in 1975, Microsoft is today one of the IT giants in the world producing a huge percentage of the software that is used by millions worldwide especially the windows operating system and gaming devices such as XBOX (Schneider). Microsoft gives its employees considerable personal autonomy, in both matters of work and the working environment, thus employees will order their own supplies, customize their office and workspace as they see fit and schedule trips and meetings. Even when upper management or other groups make decisions for someone, they still have to take into consideration; ones interests, skills and abilities. While working for Microsoft, I would have the option of showing up to work when I want, and I could hire a decorator to do my office in my style of choice. Without someone else making my schedule for me, I believe I would be highly productive, because of not working under pressure thus being intrinsically motivated. Some companies imagine that employee development and education are undesirable for them since it exposes them to other skills and opportunities, which might make them quit and join other companies in posterity. However, Microsoft takes a radically different approach to the subject of personal employee development, it does not only supply a diverse variety of learning opportunities, but employees are expected to take advantage of them. In fact, one is even guided and directed in their choice of specialization in mid-year career discussions with personnel managers. After such discussions, the firm helps the employees get the experience required through training, shadowing an experienced professional or assigning those projects that will help them gain skills and experience. Indeed, management is so supportive to staff training and development that many of the employees especially new entrants are often spoilt for choice, as at least twenty days a year are spent on staff training. Working in such an environment, I would benefit a great deal since I am not only a quick learner but constantly thirsty for new knowledge. Thus, having an employer who not only encourages but also facilitates the acquisition of new knowledge and skills would epitomize the closest to a perfect job I can get. Microsoft’s compensations and benefits package are not only above the average for the IT industry, but also for the country as a whole since the firm pays more than most of the employers in America. Indeed, this might explain why they do not fear their employees gaining new skills since they do not fear losing them, since there are only few firms that could pay them more remuneration benefits than Microsoft. They also allow their staff to purchase shares of Microsoft at discounted prices, the firm has a team of financial advisors who help the employees develop their financial portfolio by making objective and informed decisions (Lee). Microsoft also shows a great deal of concern for the health of its employees as well as eligible

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Clean Edge Razor Splitting Hairs in Product Positioning Essay Example for Free

Clean Edge Razor Splitting Hairs in Product Positioning Essay Paramount’s newest non-disposable razor, Clean Edge, has brought a new hope for the company whose other products are either on the mature stage of product life cycle or on the declining stage. Clean Edge’s improved design provides superior performance and hence the top management is extremely excited. They need to come up with a marketing strategy including product positioning, brand name marketing budget allocation for the upcoming launch. Another area of concern is how to deal with the cannibalization effect on the other range of non-disposable razors sold by Paramount. It is very important to come up with a suitable strategy to make the product successful in the market. Through a proper economic analysis considering the razor market and the facts available, we have come up with a conclusion that Paramount should position Clean Edge in the Niche Segment. Statement of the Problems Paramount needs to come up with a marketing strategy to effectively position its new line of technologically advanced non-disposable razors. Over the last five year years the industry has seen major advancements in the male grooming industry with the entry of new formidable players turning on the heat for the existing market leaders. Some of the major highlights include * Male specific grooming products seem to have outpaced the growth in women’s beauty market and have become more mainstream * In the male grooming product category, the replacement cycle of razors and cartridges have shortened * Advertising expenditures in the category have been rising faster than retail market sales * The demand has had a cumulative effect on technology as newer advanced products have hit the market resulting in approximately 5% growth per year from 2007 to 2010 * Super-premium segment has experienced significant growth with numerous product innovations By 2009, Paramount had already established itself as a global consumer products giant having expertise in Health, Cleaning, Beauty and Grooming. This helped the company to quickly position itself as a trusted brand in the non-disposable razor market. Capitalising on its reputation it offered its products By 2009, the replacement cycle of non-disposable razor cartridges had shortened due to consumers trying out new products. The challenge with Paramount was that two of its mainstream products – Paramount Pro and Paramount Avail had not introduced any significant technology innovations since 2005. However, its competitors, especially Radiance is on the verge of launching Naiv razor which promises a better shaving experience.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Humas Overcoming Nature Essay -- Nature Society Natural Essays

Humas Overcoming Nature Humans have always tried to exert their control over nature. Throughout history, humans command over nature has wavered from a confidant to a skeptical viewpoint. As time passed, humans believied in their ability to conquer nature slowly diminished to a point where nature ruled without a doubt. Now, in the twentieth century, however, people believe once again that the human population can overcome nature. Up until the sixteenth century, people believed that God could explain all actions. In general, science did not really exist. People simply looked to the Bible for reassurance about then unexplainable phenomenon. With the development of a scientific method and the industrial revolution, people began to recognize reason in their world through science. In the present day, the general public in their quest to discover all of natures secrets depends on science and its reason. Rogets Dictionary declares that science includes the observation, identification, experimental investigation and theoretical explanation of phenomena. Science tries to describe nature through all of these methods. It seems that every day a new study is published about the relationship between nature and humans. Scientists have explained and improved many aspects of human health and the human body, especially in the twentieth century. In 1936, Dr. Alexis Carrel developed the artificial heart. In 1937, insulin began t o be used to control diabetes. In 1943, penicillin was discovered. In 1954, Jonas Salk inoculated children with the polio vaccination. In 1970, scientist at the University of Wisconsin completed the first complete synthesis of a gene. In 1978 the first "test-tube baby" was born in England and finally, in 1980, the Wor... ...f Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History. Third Edition. 532. 6. Rogers, Perry M. Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History. Third Edition. 532. 7. Rogers, Perry M. Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History. Third Edition. 542. 8. Rogers, Perry M. Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History. Third Edition. 530. 9. Rogers, Perry M. Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History. Third Edition. 531. 10. Rogers, Perry M. Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History. Third Edition. 539-540. 11. Craver, Bruce. Lecture. University of Dayton. 19 Nov 98. 12. Rogers, Perry M. Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History. Third Edition. 494.

Monday, January 13, 2020

What is the impact of road safety on the design and management of road networks?

Abstract Road transport is the most common type of transportation worldwide, which inevitably means that traffic accidents, and resulting casualties, are a regular occurrence. Further, the manufacture of cars in recent years, which combine high-speed engines with poor road performance, has a direct correlation with the occurrence of accidents. Consequentially, road safety has become a common interest within all countries throughout the world. In my opinion, road safety can be improved by incorporating relevant geometric, climatic and physical considerations in the design of roads. In addition, the application of an awareness program in education and advertising plays a significant role in strengthening road safety and reducing accidents. On the basis of the foregoing, when one is building a safe road, every factor of safety should be taken into consideration and at every stage of the process, including design. The main objective of this report is to show the impact of road safety considerations in the design of roads and the management of the road network, and how the aim of decreasing road traffic accidents and casualties influences geometric design, traffic design and structural design in road construction. In particular, geometric design and traffic design are greatly influenced by road safety standards, as evidenced in the geometric design of roundabouts, junctions, and pedestrian and cyclist highways. By relying on a specific case study, this paper will also investigate roundabout design and its interrelation with road safety; for instance, whilst roundabouts are likely safer than intersections because they encourage a reduction in vehicles speed and conflict points, it has been found that roundabouts with signalisation are safer for both cyclists and pedestrians. For these reasons, it is clear that the improvement of road safety requires the inclusion of safety in road design and man agement procedures. Introduction The road network is a systematic structure, which is constructed on invariable criteria for the purpose of road transportation and designed with certain considerations (such as traffic, climate condition and the environment) in mind. It is used by the majority of people worldwide, which is unsurprising considering the volume of traffic accidents and road related deaths and injuries. Indeed in recent times, this is often seen as a global phenomenon, with the number of road related deaths ranging from between 0.75 and 0.8 million annually[1]. Unfortunately, it also appears that this number is increasingly rising; indeed, a 2008 publication of the World Health Organisation (â€Å"World health statistics†) estimated that the death rate from traffic accidents globally is 2.2%, and that due to the manufacture of car engines capable of higher speeds and the development of the economy in developing countries, it is anticipated that this figure will dramatically increase to about 3.6% by 2030[2]. Likewise, road traffic accident costs are expected to increase. There are three main factors which contribute to road traffic accidents: â€Å"road and engineering deficiencies; road user errors (â€Å"human factors†); and vehicle defects†[3]. Indeed, a UK study from the 1970s demonstrated that the human factor plays an unfavorable role in 95% of accidents, whilst 28% and 8% of accidents are at least partly caused by environmental and vehicle shortcomings[4]. For these reasons, it is not logical to focus solely on one single factor. It is clear that the fact that road user errors feature in the majority of accidents proves that the human factor is the principle cause of traffic accidents; however, if the construction of roads was geometrically improved, this may not be the case. Indeed, according to Restructuring road institutions, finance and management engineering[5], engineering is one of four factors that influence road safety (along with enforcement, education, and climate). By focusing on the impact of the engineering factor o n road safety improvement, the objective of this report is: To demonstrate and define the concept of road safety. To explain the incorporation of safety features in road design and management. This report consists of 6 parts: methodology; an explanation of road safety, road design, and road management; the impact of road safety factors on the geometric design and management of roads; a presentation of a case study on road intersections, cyclists and pedestrian safety at roundabouts; a discussion; and finally, a conclusion 2. Methodology To demonstrate the effect of the road safety considerations on road design and management, this paper will investigate road intersections through a case study linked to geometric design, and then discuss the safety of cyclists and pedestrians in relation to roundabouts. See Figure 1. 3. Road safety According to Oxford Wordpower Dictionary[1], safety is defined as â€Å"the state of being safe; not being dangerous or in danger†, whilst road safety is defined as â€Å"the prevention of road accidents†. The purpose of roads is to provide facilities for safe travel and transport, and improved road safety can be achieved in the design and management of road management by incorporating safety orientated â€Å"design criteria, design values and interventions†[2]. Such an approach could not only lead to a decrease in road related deaths and accidents, but it could also make roads more accessible. Indeed, as outlined in the DTMRQ manual[3], such an outcome can be achieved with the application of certain factors: Improving road network safety using a risk management approach; Designing for safer travel for all road users; Providing safer access to the road system for cyclists and pedestrians; Ensuring work site safety; and Co-ordinating with other government agencies in partnership. As stated above, road users errors is the main factor which contributes to road accidents. However, it has been observed that the enhancement of engineering design and management can influence drivers’ behavior positively and reduce the number of such errors[4]. It should be noted that no road is absolutely safe and that the safety of a road is often measured on the volume of accidents on it. For that reason, it is logical to indicate that the construction of a road involves the use of a nominal safety level[5] 4. Road design: According to Oxford Wordpower Dictionary[6], design is defined as â€Å"to plan and make a drawing of how something will be made†. The three aspects of design that must be considered in the construction of roads are geometric design (which relates to physical elements such as â€Å"vertical and horizontal curves, lane widths, clearances, cross-section dimensions, etc†[7]) traffic design and structural design. Good road design standards involve a combination of these three variable aspects to produce efficient and safer road.4.1 Geometric design:Road geometric design involves horizontal and vertical alignment and road cross-section, with the determination of these elements based on the criteria of road safety[8]. The reduction of the road accident rate is significantly influenced by these elements meaning there is a clear relationship between road design and road safety. For example, it has been found that junctions that are geometrically designed with road safety in min d see a smaller number of road accidents. Sound geometric design can involve a reduction in the number of conflict points (with the construction of channels). Indeed, it has been found that the use of roads with two lanes, which are each 3.7m wide, are safer than roads with one lane that is 2.7m wide[9]. In addition, it is felt that the presence of the median reduces the cross-median accident rate, even where it is narrow, and that the inclusion of safety fences at the outer edge of roads plays a significant role in road safety[10]. Road Management: According to Robinson (2008)[11], road management is defined as â€Å"a process that is attempting to optimise the overall performance of the road network overtime†. This involves action that affects or can affect the road network quality and efficiency during the service lifespan and which facilitates trade, health protection, and education by enhancing accessibility. Further, the improvement of road efficiency, effectiveness and safety can lead to increasing economic well-being as a result of lower commodity prices. Road management is affected by a number of factors, but the dominant is â€Å"accident levels and costs†, which is directly related to road users and economic infrastructure[12]. As a consequence, road management action can involve the policing of vehicle speed in order to improve safety. Additionally, it can also include such activities which are conducted on the road itself and the surrounding environment, such as road maintenance. As Robinson (2008) sta tes, the aim of road maintenance is to make roads safer because it contributes to the geometric factors in the areas of: Pavement and footway surface; Carriageway marking and delineation; and Signs, street lights and furniture.[13] In this way, road safety can be incorporated in road management; for example, the continuous repair of pavements reduces vehicle operating costs to be reduced and the rate of accidents on the road. Road intersections Road intersections are a significant part of the road network structure, and in spite of their simple function, they contributes more than 20% of fatal road accidents in the EU[14]; and even though it has been reported that about 31% of serious accidents occur in non-built-up areas, 65% occurred at built-area junctions in 1984 in the UK[15]. According to the Federal Highway Administration (2006)[16], road intersection safety has become a considerable problem in the USA because more than 45% of approximately 2.7 million crashes that occurred there in 2004 happened at junctions. Unfortunately, despite the fact that junction design and traffic standards have seen a significant improvement generally, it has not caused a significant reduction in the rate of accidents per year. For those reasons, the FHWA supported the concept of converting intersections to roundabouts in order to decrease the rate of accidents and to provide increase safety. Rate of fatal casualties in EU at junctions and other locations of roads Case study A study was carried out in 8 States of the USA in 2004 for 24 junctions before and after conversion to roundabout. It resulted in a 39% reduction of overall crash rates, with a 90% and 76% reduction in the fatal and injury crashes, respectively[1]. See Table 1. Reduction of crashes following roundabout conversions at 24 U.S. junctions In 8 states in USAReduction In Crashes % In 2004OverallFatalInjury -39%-90%-76% Table 1: the information from FHWA, 2006 Discussion The reduction in the level of road traffic accidents in the case study proves that replacing junctions with roundabouts is the logical decision in the USA because it is clear that such a course of action increases overall safety. Unfortunately, the study sample is small as it does not cover all safety aspects, and the safety of the cyclist and pedestrian is not clarified because the crashes categorized are only based on motor vehicles. It should be noted that approximately 75% of cyclist accidents occur at roundabouts[2]. For that reason, the impact of roundabouts on passengers and cyclists is worthy of investigation.8.1 Roundabout and road designAccording to Fortuijn (2003)[3], the majority of cyclist-car accidents occur when a cyclist is circulating in the roundabout and a car either enters or exits from the roundabout. It has also been said that roundabouts that are charactarised with a significant design feature (e.g. a requirement to reduce vehicle speed to 30phm, use of a centr al island, a right angle connection between roadways and circular roadways, or a right of way traffic movement) serve to reduce crash rates and cyclist accidents. Another characteristic that improves road safety at roundabouts is the reduction of conflict points to about a quarter of the number utilised at other junctions.8.2. Roundabout and road managementModern roundabouts are recognised with high capacity, low speed, and non-use of signalisation. The use of roundabout signalisation is typical dependant on traffic volume and safety. Nevertheless, the roundabouts that don’t use signalisation are still safer than junctions[1]. Further, the maintenance of traffic signs, lights and pavement surface serve to increase road life service and safety. The manufacture of vehicles with higher speed engines may serve to reduce the efficiency of roundabouts and increase the safety hazards to cyclists and pedestrians, especially at times of high traffic volume. According to the findings of the London Road Safety Unit (2003)[2], the roundabouts with signalisation are safer for both cyclists and pedestrian, based on a study which was conducted in 2003 for a number of roundabouts, before and after signalisation Conclusion: This report has sought to demonstrate the impact of road safety in design and road management by defining and analysing the relevant concepts, with particular attention paid to cyclist and pedestrian safety. The following points were also concluded: Road accidents occur due to three main factors: road users, environment and engineering. The level of road safety measures that are utilized depend on the volume of accidents. Road safety is incorporated into road design and management through incorporation of safety considerations. Road safety is improved through road maintenance. Roundabouts typically serve to reduce vehicle speed and conflict points, which in turn can reduce the road accident rate, and increase the safety of cyclists and pedestrian. It is believed that the road design and management plays a significant role in road safety enhancement through the interaction of safety criteria with the road efficiency. Signalisation at roundabouts can increase the safety of cyclists and pedestrians, and a cyclist right of way can reduce the rate of car-cyclist accident References: Robinson, R., & Thagesen, B. (2004). Road engineering for development, 2nd ed. Taylor & Francis. London. Moller, M., & Hels, T. (2008). Cyclists’ perception of risk in roundabouts.Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(3), 1055-1062. [online] https://wiki.cecs.pdx.edu/pub/ItsWeb/BikeBoxes/Moller_Hels_2007.pdf [accessed October 19th 2013] Fortuijn, L. G. H. (2003). Pedestrian and Bicycle-Friendly Roundabouts; Dilemma of Comfort and Safety. [online], Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. http://www.mnt.ee/failid/SlowTrRoundb.pdf [accessed October 19th 2013] Antoniou, C., Tsakiri, M., & Yannis, G. (2012). ROAD SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS IN JUNCTIONS USING 3D LASER SCANNING. [online] http://www.nrso.ntua.gr/geyannis/images/stories/ge/Publications/Papers-Conferences/geyannis-pc144.pdf [accessed October 16th 2013] DTMRQ, (2010). Road planning and design manual: design philosophy. [online], Brisbane, Department of Transport and Main Roads of Queensland. http://www.tmr.qld.gov.au/~/media/Business%20and%20industry/Technical%20standards%20and%20publications/Road%20planning%20and%20design%20manual/Current%20document/RPDM_Chapter2.pdf[Accessed October 14th 2013]. DTMRQ, (2010). Road planning and design manual: road planning and design fundamentals. [online], Brisbane,Department of Transport and Main Roads of Queensland. http://www.tmr.qld.gov.au/~/media/Business%20and%20industry/Technical%20standards%20and%20publications/Road%20planning%20and%20design%20manual/Current%20document/RPDM_Chapter3.pdf[Accessed October 17th 2013]. FHWA, (2006). Priority market-ready technologies and innovations. Problem: intersection crashes account for more than 45 percent of all crashes nationwide. [online], U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/resourcecenter/teams/safety/saf_7rnd.pdf [accessed 18th October 2013]. Fouladvand, M. E., Sadjadi, Z., & Shaebani, M. R. (2004). Characteristics of vehicular traffic flow at a roundabout. [online] Physical Review E, 70(4), 046132. http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0309560.pdf [accessed October 14th 2013] Grime, G., 1987.Handbook of road safety research.Bodmin: Butterworths. Hauer, E, (1999). Safety in geometric design standards. [online], Toronto. http://portalantigo.cefid.udesc.br/ciclo/workshop/Hauer.Safety.GeoDesign.pdf [Accessed October 17th 2013]. London Street Management-London Road Safety Unit. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/SignalsatRoundabouts-TransportationProfessiona-Article.pdf Ministry of Transport, (1966). Roads in urban areas. Ministry of transport: Scottish development department. London. Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, (2013). Oxford University press, Persaud, B N and others, (2000). Crash reductions following installation of roundabouts in the United States. [online]. https://www.dot.ny.gov/main/roundabouts/files/insurance_report.pdf [Accessed 21th October 2013]. Robinson, R, 2008. Restructuring road institutions, finance and management, volume 1: concepts and principles.Totton: University of Birmingham, Birmingham. Slinn, M., Matthews, P., & Guest, P. (2005). Traffic engineering design. Principles and practice. 2nd ed. Arnold, London. [online] httpwww.amazon.comTraffic-Engineering-Design-Second-Editiondp0750658657 [accessed 20th October 2013] WHO, (2008).World health statistics. [online], Paris, World Health Organisation. [online]http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/EN_WHS08_Full.pdf [accessed 14th October 2013].

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Scarlet Letter The Puritan Society - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 832 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/05/15 Category Statistics Essay Level High school Tags: The Scarlet Letter Essay Did you like this example? The Puritans were a group of people, who had very strong religious beliefs, judged everyone harshly and played a prominent role in the 17th century set book, The Scarlet Letter. There are a lot of different factors in the book that play a big role, sin plays a big role in developing the whole story and there are many important pieces of symbolism in the book. In chapter 23 of Nathaniel Hawthornes best work, The Scarlet Letter, there are numerous examples of symbolism, which all contribute to demonstrating the role nature plays in the chapter and the rest of the book, along with exemplifying American Romanticism.. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Scarlet Letter: The Puritan Society" essay for you Create order Romanticism and nature are intertwined throughout this book, and peoples feelings play a significant role in The Scarlet Letter. Hester Prynne suffered with Pearl Prynne throughout the story, and she suffered because she had to wear the scarlet letter A on her breast. The A ruined her life because it caused her to have no friends and led Hester to live a life of seclusion; it was Hester versus the town. Nature also plays an important and symbolic role in the book. Nature is used throughout the book to describe characters and set moods. Sunshine is used to represent the good, like Pearls innocence as she runs around catching the sunshine, I am but a child. It will not flee from me; for I wear nothing on my bosom yet (Hawthorne 180)! The darkness is normally present around bad things, like Hester wearing the A on her bosom, The sunshine does not love you. It runs away and hides itself, because it is afraid of something on your bosom (Hawthorne 180). The darkness was also present when R everend Arthur Dimmesdale had confessed at night on the scaffold, He had been driven hither by the impulse of that Remorse which dogged him everywhere, and whose own sister and closely linked companion was that Cowardice which invariably drew him back with her tremulous gripe, just when the other impulse had hurried him to the verge of a disclosure (Hawthorne 144). This part of the story is very important because it was when Dimmesdale first confessed his sin in public, even if nobody was there to hear him. Symbolism is one of the most important things in many stories. In chapter 23 there are very important symbols, such as Reverend Dimmesdales Election Day Sermon, which shows he is focused on his role in the community and God. When his sermon is over, he walks onto the scaffold while he is very weak and pale. While he is walking up, Reverend Wilson and Governor Bellingham offer him help, but he pushes them both away. Dimmesdale pushing the two men away symbolically represents him pushing away the church and the state. The first man that offered help was Wilson, The minister tremulously, but decidedly, repelled the old mans arm. He still walked onward, if that movement could be described, which rather resembled the wavering effort of an infant, with its mothers arms in view, outstretched to tempt him forward (Hawthorne 246). During the climax of the book, Dimmesdale realizes that he cannot save his own life, but he can save Pearls by admitting his sin to the town. This is very important because he had been fighting admitting this throughout the whole book. In the beginning of the book, Dimmesdale did not want to admit that he was Pearls father to the whole town, but as time went on and Roger Chillingworth continued to hurt him, he decided he needed to tell everybody his sin. Dimmesdale had overcome his fear of confessing. Then, Dimmesdale invites Hester and Pearl onto the scaffold with him and reveals his sin, With a convulsive motion, he tore away the ministerial band from before his breast. It was revealed (Hawthorne 250)! While Hester and Pearl stood up on the scaffold with Dimmesdale, Dimmesdale asked Pearl for a kiss because she did not accept Dimmesdales kiss previously and she gives him a kiss. When Pearl kisses Dimmesdale, it symbolizes that she forgives him and accepts him as her father, Dear li ttle Pearl, wilt thou kiss me now? Thou wouldst not, yonder, in the forest! But now thou wilt! Pearl kissed his lips. A spell was broken (Hawthorne 251). Nathaniel Hawthornes, The Scarlet Letter, has lots of symbolism and nature plays a big role, which all contribute to the book being an American Romanticism. It is an example of American Romanticism because it uses the individual person and their feelings. Another way the book is considered to be an American Romanticism is because revenge plays a role, Chillingworth was so focused throughout the book to get revenge on Dimmesdale, which is a huge sin and Chillingworth was going to die a sinner. Dimmesdale makes a huge transformation through the book, from being scared to admit he was the father of Pearl, to proudly admitting he was. The book is a great, old piece of American Literature and will continue to be analyzed and read for years.